Methods for lithium-based battery energy storage SOC estimation. Part II: Application and accuracy
Climate change is driving the transformation of energy systems from fossil to renewable energies. In industry, power supply systems and electro-mobility, the need for electrical energy storage is rising sharply. Lithium-based batteries are one of the most widely used technologies. Operating parameters must be determined to control the storage system within the approved operating limits. Operating outside the limits, i.e., exceeding or falling below the permitted cell voltage, can lead to faster aging or destruction of the cell. Accurate cell information is required for optimal and efficient system operation. The key is high-precision measurements, sufficiently accurate battery cell and system models, and efficient control algorithms. Increasing demands on the efficiency and dynamics of better systems require a high degree of accuracy in determining the state of health and state of charge (SOC). These scientific contributions to the above topics are divided into two parts. In the first part of the paper, a holistic overview of the main SOC assessment methods is given. Physical measurement methods, battery modeling, and the methodology of using the model as a digital twin of a battery are addressed and discussed. In addition, adaptive methods and artificial intelligence methods that are important for SOC calculation are presented. Part two of the paper presents examples of the application areas and discusses their accuracy.