Fabrication of modern lithium ion batteries by 3D inkjet printing: opportunities and challenges
Inkjet printing (IJP) is a prospective additive manufacturing technology that enables the rapid and precise deposition of thin films or patterns. It offers numerous advantages over other thin-film manufacturing processes, including cost-effectiveness, ease of use, reduced waste material, and scalability. The key advantage of this technique is the ability of the fabrication of complex patterns with very high precision. The IJP gives the possibility of building three-dimensional (3D) structures on the microscale, which is beneficial for modern Li-Ion batteries (LIBs) and All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries (ASSLIBs). In contrast to typical laminated composite electrodes manufactured by tape casting and calendaring, 3D electrode design allows the electrolyte to penetrate through the electrode volume, increasing the surface-to-volume ratio and reducing ion diffusion paths. Thus, 3D electrodes/electrolyte structures are one of the most promising strategies for producing next-generation lithium-ion batteries with enhanced electrochemical performance. Although in the literature review, the IJP is frequently reported as a future perspective for the fabrication of 3D electrodes/electrolytes structures for LIBs, only a few works focus on this subject. In this review, we summarize the previous studies devoted to the topic and discuss different bottlenecks and challenges limiting further development.