Optimierungsbasierte Analyse von Anreizsystemen für Photovoltaik-Eigenstromversorgung in Mehrfamilienhäusern
The expansion of photovoltaics is an important pillar of the energy transition in Germany. In order to achieve the Paris climate goals and to avoid competition for land between agriculture and solar systems, all technical roof area potentials should be used. Roofs of multi-family houses offer great potential in connection with a self-supply of electricity, the so-called tenant electricity (Mieterstrom). In contrast to feed-in only, self-supplying photovoltaic systems allow the generation of decentralized and load-related power. The government’s incentives in the form of reduced electricity price components and the tenant electricity surcharge included in the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) since 2017 are facing a large amount of administrative effort and have not yet been sufficient to incentivize any significant expansion. In this thesis, the framework conditions for tenant electricity in Germany are summarized and, based on barriers in the existing system, incentives are developed to accelerate the expansion of self-supplying photovoltaic power on multi-family buildings. The incentive systems developed include individual government measures, variable electricity tariffs, and the integration of electric cars and heat supply into the energy system of the building. The focus is on so far unprofitable, smaller buildings. The incentives are analyzed in one current and three medium-term price scenarios and with the help of a mixed integer linear optimization model with 15 minutes resolution. It can be shown that all developed incentive schemes lead to a more economical operation of tenant electricity projects. The advantages are particularly significant for the integration of variable loads. In the short term, the abolition of administrative hurdles and targeted subsidy programs are promising measures.
Dresden, TU, Dipl.-Arb., 2022
PV-Eigenstrom als effizientes, nachhaltiges und robustes Element des zukünftigen Energiesystems
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz BMWK