Prostaglandin D2 metabolites activate asthmatic patient-derived type 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophils via the DP2 receptor
Background. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling via prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) contributes to atopic and non-atopic asthma. Inhibiting DP2 has shown therapeutic benefit in certain subsets of asthma patients, improving eosinophilic airway inflammation. PGD2 metabolites prolong the inflammatory response in asthmatic patients via DP2 signaling. The role of PGD2 metabolites on eosinophil and ILC2 activity is not fully understood. Methods. Eosinophils and ILC2s were isolated from peripheral blood of atopic asthmatic patients. Eosinophil shape change, ILC2 migration and IL-5/IL-13 cytokine secretion were measured after stimulation with seven PGD2 metabolites in presence or absence of the selective DP2 antagonist fevipiprant. Results. Selected metabolites induced eosinophil shape change with similar nanomolar potencies except for 9a,11v-PGF2. Maximal values in forward scatter of eosinophils were comparable between metabolites. ILC2s migrated dose-dependently in the presence of selected metabolites except for 9a,11v-PGF2 with EC50 values ranging from 17.4 to 91.7 nM. Compared to PGD2, the absolute cell migration was enhanced in the presence of D12-PGD2, 15-deoxy-D12,14-PGD2, PGJ2, D12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-D12,14-PGJ2. ILC2 cytokine production was dose dependent as well but with an average sixfold reduced potency compared to cell migration (IL-5 range 108.1 to 526.9 nM, IL-13 range: 125.2 to 788.3 nM). Compared to PGD2, the absolute cytokine secretion was reduced in the presence of most metabolites. Fevipiprant dose-dependently inhibited eosinophil shape change, ILC2 migration and ILC2 cytokine secretion with (sub)-nanomolar potencies. Conclusion. Prostaglandin D2 metabolites initiate ILC2 migration and IL-5 and IL-13 cytokine secretion in a DP2 dependent manner. Our data indicate that metabolites may be important for in vivo eosinophil activation and ILC2 migration and to a lesser extent for ILC2 cytokine secretion.