Propensity-score-matched comparison of safety, efficacy, and outcome of intravascular lithotripsy versus high-pressure PTCA in coronary calcified lesions
Background Data regarding safety, efficacy, and outcome of intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) in comparison to standard techniques are lacking. This study sought to compare IVL with non-compliant high-pressure balloon percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Methods and results We performed a retrospective propensity-score-matched study to compare procedural success in 57 consecutive patients who received IVL-guided PCI in calcified coronary lesions with 171 matched patients who were treated with high-pressure PTCA with a non-compliant (NC)-balloon. The mean minimal lumen diameter (MLD) for the IVL group was 1.08 ± 0.51 mm, and the median percent diameter stenosis on quantitative angiography was 70.2% (interquartile range, 60.2-78.6%). MLD in the high-pressure dilatation group was 0.97 ± 0.43 mm, and the median percent diameter stenosis was 71.5% (interquartile range, 58.5-77.0%). IVL-guided PCI reduced median stenosis to 17.5% (interquartile range, 9.3-19.8%) with an acute gain of 0.93 ± 0.7 mm. High-pressure dilatation resulted in a final median stenosis of 19.3% (interquartile range, 13.33-28.5%). Procedural success was significantly higher (82.5% vs. 61.4%; p: 0.0035) in the IVL group. MACE through 12 months occurred in 10.5% of cases in the IVL group and in 11.1% of the high-pressure group (p = 0.22). Angiographic complications (coronary dissection, slow or no reflow, new coronary thrombus formation, abrupt vessel closure) were very low (0.2% vs. 0.12%). Conclusion IVL resulted in a significantly higher rate of procedural success compared to high- pressure NC-balloon dilatation in patients with calcified coronary lesions. The rate of MACE through 12 months was similar to the standard therapy.