Pitch Control of Three Bladed Large Wind Energy Converters - A Review
Modern multi-megawatt wind turbines are currently designed as pitch-regulated machines, i.e., machines that use the rotation of the blades (pitching) in order to adjust the aerodynamic torque, such that the power is maintained constantly throughout a wide range of wind speeds when they exceed the design value (rated wind speed). Thus, pitch control is essential for optimal performance. However, the pitching activity is not for free. It introduces vibrations to the tower and blades and generates fatigue loads. Hence, pitch control requires a compromise between wind turbine performance and safety. In the past two decades, many approaches have been proposed to achieve different objectives and to overcome the problems of a wind energy converter using pitch control. The present work summarizes control strategies for problem of wind turbines, which are solved by using different approaches of pitch control. The emphasis is placed on the bibliographic information, but the merits and demerits of the approaches are also included in the presentation of the topics. Finally, very large wind turbines have to simultaneously satisfy several control objectives. Thus, approaches like collective and individual pitch control, tower and blade damping control, and pitch actuator control must coexist in an integrated control system.