Friction and Wear Behavior of Deep Drawing Tools Using Volatile Lubricants Injected Through Laser-Drilled Micro-Holes
In deep drawing processes, the use of lubricants is mandatory in order to prevent wear on tools and surface damage to the formed sheet metal components. Here, frequently used lubricants are synthetic and mineral oils, emulsions, and waxes. However, these conventional lubricants have to be applied to the sheet material prior to the forming operation and removed afterwards by cleaning processes. Additionally, the lubricants often contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health. To counteract these economic and ecological disadvantages, research is currently being conducted on a novel tribological system. For this, volatile media such as liquid carbon dioxide and gaseous nitrogen are being used, and are introduced directly into the friction zones between the tool and the sheet metal material during deep drawing under high pressure through special laser-drilled micro-holes. This paper covers the latest investigations and findings regarding the design of flow-optimized micro-holes, the laser drilling process, the friction characterization on tool radii, and the tool wear to be expected when using the lubrication medium CO2.