Quantitative Evaluation of the Shading Resilience of PV Modules
We present simulation results on the partial shading behavior of four PV module layout containing three different solar cell sizes. Two types of shingle interconnection are compared to the widely used ""butterfly"" layout for half-cut solar cells and the conventional solar cell interconnection of 60 full size solar cells. For the LT spice simulations, we measured the I-V characteristic of PERC shingle solar cells and included the reverse breakdown region into an extended two-diode model. Two basic shading cases, rectangular and random shading, are investigated. Therefore, we created sets of >1000 scenarios per case by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The scenarios are transferable for all solar cell sizes and the number of full solar cell equivalents identical in all topologies. We apply a new criterion  for evaluation of the shading resilience 𝑆𝑅 from 0 to 1 to compare and rank the different cell topologies regarding their performance under partial shading. The shading resilience for rectangular shadings of the shingle matrix layout (𝑆𝑅=0.692) excels the one of the shingle string layout (𝑆𝑅=0.602,87 % of the matrix layout), the butterfly layout (𝑆𝑅=0.461,67 %) and the conventional full cell interconnection (𝑆𝑅=0.213,31 %) scheme. We find minor differences in the absolute values for random shading. However, the ranking of the solar modules stays identical. Finally, we conclude that besides higher power densities and a valuable aesthetical appearance, shingle solar modules feature an additional very important but so far little noticed and discussed property: Overall higher power outputs under partial shading. This makes them especially suited for vehicle and building integrated applications.