Trend Tracking of Efficiency and CTM Ratio of PV Modules
In this study, historical and present PV module concepts are analyzed concerning efficiency, output power and cell-to-module (CTM) ratio by simulating PV modules with different components over the period between 2009 and 2019. Furthermore, the changes occurring in important gain and loss channels within PV modules are illustrated as they are affected by the changes in module design and solar cell performance. Results show that in the last decade, the PV module output power and efficiency exhibit an absolute increase of about +85 Wp and +5.3% corresponding to a yearly rate of about +7.7 Wp and +0.48% respectively. Moreover, gain and loss factors show their impact on the CTM-ratio for both PV module power and efficiency, which also exhibits an absolute increase of about +3.2% and 3.4% respectively. Loss factors in the module such as power loss in cell interconnections show high sensitivity regarding the solar cell output current and the metallization pattern. On the other hand, optical loss and gain factors show a strong dependency on the use of the anti-reflective-coating and the encapsulation and backsheet materials used.