Integrated Expansion Strategies for Public Charging Infrastructure in Cities
The quality and demand coverage of urban public charging networks depend on a high number of on-site specifics comprising e.g. mobility behaviour, socio-demographics as well as technology and economics related parameters. This study presents a model that develops integrated expansion strategies for public charging infrastructure in urban areas taking into account the mentioned factors. First, the model quantifies the demand of normal and fast charging infrastructure. Second, it optimizes the placement of the charging points in order to cover the charging demand as best as possible. Third, the model investigates to what extent the local power distribution grid is prepared for a considerable increase in the share of electric mobility. Fourth, it examines if the power grid restricts the identified installation sites and whether controlled charging is able to relieve critical grid situations. The model is applied to the Pfaff area in the German city of Kaiserslautern. The exemplary district and its specifics are introduced. The resulting charging infrastructure demand and placement within the area are presented and discussed for an assumptive share of 30\% of electric mobility. It shows that charging the electric vehicles doesn't cause critical grid situations even without controlled charging. However, because of on-site specifics and suitable charging concepts being highly individual, solutions need to be developed case by case. It can be concluded that the necessary charging infrastructure expansion leads to multiple challenges for cities. The presented method addresses these challenges by developing integrated charging infrastructure expansion strategies in order to support stakeholders such as municipalities, distribution network operators and charge point operators in their planning and decision making processes.