Optimal Control Simulations of Two-Finger Precision Grasps
Grasping is a complex human activity performed with readiness through a complicated mechanical system as an end effector, i.e. the human hand. Here, we apply a direct transcription method of discrete mechanics and optimal control with constraints (DMOCC) to reproduce human-level grasping of an object with a three-dimensional model of the hand, actuated through joint control torques. The equations of motions describing the hand dynamics are derived from a discrete variational principle based on a discrete action functional, which gives the time integrator structure-preserving properties. The grasping action is achieved through a series of constraints, which generate a hybrid dynamical system with a given switching sequence and unknown switching times. To determine a favourable trajectory for grasping action, we solve an optimal control problem (ocp) with an objective involving either the contact polygon centroid or the control torques subject to discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, boundary conditions and path constraints.