Meta-analysis of twelve primary energy optimized buildings employing thermo-active building systems and environmental energy
This paper evaluates the energy performance and the thermal comfort of 11 primary energy optimized non-residential buildings that belong to the EnOB research program launched by the German Federal Ministry for Economy and, additionally, one residential building. These buildings employ environmental energy sources and sinks - such as the ground, ground/rain water and the ambient air - in combination with thermo-active building systems. A limited primary energy use of about 100 kWh prim/(m net 2a) as a goal for the complete building service technology (HVAC and lighting) was postulated for all presented buildings. With respect to this premise, a comprehensive long-term monitoring over the course of one to five years in high time resolution was carried out with an accompanying commissioning of the building performance. Measurements comprise the energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as the auxiliary equipment, the performance of the environmental heat so urce/sink, thermal comfort, and local climatic site conditions.