Progress in advanced metallization technology at Fraunhofer ISE
Fraunhofer ISE's concept for an advanced metallization of silicon solar cells is based on a two-step process: the deposition of a seed layer to form a mechanical and electrical contact and the subsequent thickening of this seed layer by a plating step, preferably by light-induced plating (LIP). The concept of a multi-layer metallization is used for most of the relevant high-efficiency cell types in industry. The main advantage of this concept is that each layer can be optimized individually, i.e. the seed layer to achieve an optimal electrical and mechanical contact and the plated layer in terms of high lateral conductivity and good solderability. Solar cells results with seed layers fabricated by aerosol printing, chemical Ni plating on cells with a laser-structured dielectric layer and laser-enhanced Ni plating are presented.