The influence of doping on the performance of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells
We investigated organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on an absorber blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A strong neck in the modulus plot of the EIS-spectra indicates that the absorber is divided into two regions of different conductivities. A similar behaviour was observed for pure P3HT-diodes. Hence, it can be concluded that the PCBM:P3HT absorber is p-doped by impurities of P3HT, so that a Schottky-like contact with aluminium is formed. It is known from literature, that annealing of PCBM:P3HT solar cells leads to drastic improvement of the photovoltaic performance. We compared the current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectra before and after consecutive annealing steps. After the annealing an expansion of the depletion region was observed, indicating that volatile dopants were evaporated out of the absorber. This contributes to an improved photovolta ic performance as the separation of the generated charges in the depletion region is more efficient than in the non-depleted region. Also an improved rectification behaviour might be caused by a lower doping level.