Time strategies, innovation and environmental policy
This book is the first attempt to systematically introduce the aspect of time into economic and environmental innovation policy. The authors demonstrate how 'windows of opportunity' for technological innovations emerge and also explain how they can be identified and effectively exploited. Technological innovations are widely considered as an opportunity to realise double dividend - protect the environment and increase profits by introducing a more sustainable technology. However, intervention by the state is often needed to overcome the competitive disadvantage caused by externalities, path dependency and lock-in. The authors provide extensive evidence that this resistance to technological change is subject to substantial temporal variation. They argue that it is economically and politically sensible to identify periods of time in which resistance is weakest and to exploit these windows of opportunity' whenever and wherever they occur. They also highlight how time strategies for innovation policy can involve the preparation and creation of 'windows' which do not yet exist. Throughout the book, they use an array of varied and interesting case studies to confirm and illustrate their theoretical findings. These address issues such as CFC phase out, the lean burn engine versus the catalytic converter, ecological alternatives to chemical pesticides and the zero mission vehicle mandate in California. By exploring the relationship between time strategies and technological change, this book will undoubtedly lead to a more efficient and sustainable innovation policy. It will be required reading for academics, researchers and policymakers working in the fields of environmental innovation, sustainability, technology policy and political science.