Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices with Carbon-Based Electrodes Withstanding Reverse-Bias Voltages Up to -9V and Surpassing IEC 61215:2016 International Standard
One of the key challenges of perovskite photovoltaics (PV) is the long-term stability. Although efforts are made to improve the lifetime of perovskite PV devices, their degradation under reverse-bias conditions is barely addressed. Herein, perovskite solar cells with carbon-based electrodes are presented which demonstrate superior resilience against reverse-bias-induced degradation. Although their breakdown voltage is identified to be at approximately -3.6 V, cells do not degrade until the applied reverse-bias exceeds -9 V. Two main degradation mechanisms are identified: 1) iodine loss due to hole tunneling into perovskite, which takes place even at low reverse-bias but decomposes the perovskite only after long time durations; and 2) rapid heating at large reverse-bias leading to formation of PbI2, which starts at shunts and then follows the path of the least resistance for the cell current, which is primarily influenced by the electrode sheet resistances. Finally, perovskite solar modules with carbon-based electrodes are demonstrated, which are subjected to a ""hotspot"" test described in the IEC 61215:2016 international standard at an accredited module testing laboratory. Passing this accelerated test for the first time confirms the superior stability of perovskite PV devices with carbon-based electrodes and highlights their large industrialization potential.