Overcoming the Inhibition Effects of Citrate: Precipitation of Ferromagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology, Magnetic Properties, and Surface Charge via Ferrous Citrate Oxidation
This study demonstrates how the method of thermally assisted oxidative precipitation in water can be opened for-the so far neglected-metal organic iron(II) complexes (herein: citrate) in order to obtain, in one step, ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles, possessing essential ligand properties. Based on a dedicated analysis of the specific precursor in combination with the consideration of known properties of the ligand, it is possible to identify existing inhibition-attributes of the iron organyl such that these can be overcome. Moreover, they can be exploited in a targeted manner; thus, simply by changing concentrations, a variety of magnetite nanoparticle morphologies with distinct properties can be obtained. In the case of the herein investigated ferrous citrate, three major inhibition effects are identified. While two of them efficiently prevent the formation of magnetite and need to be addressed to be overcome, the third can be exploited to selectively synthesize, for example, relatively stable carboxyl group-bearing nuclei clusters, exhibiting the properties of magnetically responsive photonic crystals, or relatively large mesocrystals, whose intraparticular magnetic interactions are apparently disturbed.
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Inorganic Chemistry, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany; Chair of Chemical Technology of Materials Synthesis, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Inorganic Chemistry, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, ISC, Würzburg, Germany