The impact of electric vehicles on energy systems
Electric vehicles are seen as an opportunity for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector given their high-energy efficiency. Their impact on energy systems is, however, more ambiguous. If vehicle charging is uncontrolled, they may risk the stability of electricity grids. Conversely, if their charging is intelligently controlled, they could provide multiple dividends in that they reduce emissions in the transport sector while simultaneously providing significant load flexibilities in energy systems, and accelerating the integration of more fluctuating renewable electricity sources, such as wind and solar. As a result, they help to increase energy system efficiency, and in turn, put downward pressure on energy prices. The energy autarky of private households may also increase. While the technical requirements of unlocking these benefits are straightforward, ultimately the efficient integration of electric vehicles with energy systems is limited by user acceptance.