Influence of TCO and a-Si:H Doping on SHJ Contact Resistivity
Resistive losses in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells are partly linked to transport barriers at the amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) and transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/a-Si:H interfaces. A key parameter is the position of the Fermi-level on either side of the junction which we modify by a systematic doping variation of the amorphous silicon and the transparent conductive oxide. We identify the charge carrier concentration to be the main driver for low contact resistance. For a-Si:H, this is achieved by using a sufficient but not too high doping gas concentration during deposition. For indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), no or only a very low oxygen (O 2 ) gas concentration during deposition is needed. We show that a stack of low-oxygen ITO interlayer and an oxygen-rich ITO ""bulk"" layer is not only an effective means to combine efficient transport and low TCO absorption but also to improve the thermal stability of the a-Si:H/TCO/metal contact resistivity ( rc ). Such a layer stack helps to relax the constraints regarding the optoelectrical performance and improves the efficiency of SHJ solar cells.