Data-Driven Modeling of Knowledge Assemblies in Understanding Comorbidity Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer's Disease
Background: Recent studies have suggested comorbid association between Alzheimers disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through identification of shared molecular mechanisms. However, the inference is pre-dominantly literature-based and lacks interpretation of pre-disposed genomic variants and transcriptomic measurables. Objective: In this study, we aim to identify shared genetic variants and dysregulated genes in AD and T2DM and explore their functional roles in the comorbidity between the diseases. Methods: The genetic variants for AD and T2DM were retrieved from GWAS catalog, GWAS central, dbSNP, and DisGeNet and subjected to linkage disequilibrium analysis. Next, shared variants were prioritized using RegulomeDB and Polyphen-2. Afterwards, a knowledge assembly embedding prioritized variants and their corresponding genes was created by mining relevant literature using Biological Expression Language. Finally, coherently perturbed genes from gene expression meta-analysis were mapped to the knowledge assembly to pinpoint biological entities and processes and depict a mechanistic link between AD and T2DM. Results: Our analysis identified four genes (i.e., ABCG1, COMT, MMP9, and SOD2) that could have dual roles in both AD and T2DM. Using cartoon representation, we have illustrated a set of causal events surrounding these genes which are associated to biological processes such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, apoptosis and cognition. Conclusion: Our approach of using data as the driving force for unraveling disease etiologies eliminates literature bi as and enables identification of novel entities that serve as the bridge between comorbid conditions.
Kodamullil, Alpha Tom