Hard X-ray wavefront correction via refractive phase plates made by additive and subtractive fabrication techniques
Modern subtractive and additive manufacturing techniques present new avenues for X-ray optics with complex shapes and patterns. Refractive phase plates acting as glasses for X-ray optics have been fabricated, and spherical aberration in refractive X-ray lenses made from beryllium has been successfully corrected. A diamond phase plate made by femtosecond laser ablation was found to improve the Strehl ratio of a lens stack with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.88 × 10−3 at 8.2 keV from 0.1 to 0.7. A polymer phase plate made by additive printing achieved an increase in the Strehl ratio of a lens stack at 35 keV with NA of 0.18 × 10−3 from 0.15 to 0.89, demonstrating diffraction-limited nanofocusing at high X-ray energies.