Scalable Functionalization of Optical Fibers Using Atomically Thin Semiconductors
Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides are highly promising for integrated optoelectronic and photonic systems due to their exciton‐driven linear and nonlinear interactions with light. Integrating them into optical fibers yields novel opportunities in optical communication, remote sensing, and all‐fiber optoelectronics. However, the scalable and reproducible deposition of high‐quality monolayers on optical fibers is a challenge. Here, the chemical vapor deposition of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 crystals on the core of microstructured exposed‐core optical fibers and their interaction with the fibers' guided modes are reported. Two distinct application possibilities of 2D‐functionalized waveguides to exemplify their potential are demonstrated. First, the excitonic 2D material photoluminescence is simultaneously excited and collected with the fiber modes, opening a novel route to remote sensing. Then it is shown that third‐harmonic generation is modified by the highly localized nonlinear polarization of the monolayers, yielding a new avenue to tailor nonlinear optical processes in fibers. It is anticipated that the results may lead to significant advances in optical‐fiber‐based technologies.