Characterization of Silicon Crystals Grown from Melt in a Granulate Crucible
The growth of silicon crystals from a melt contained in a granulate crucible significantly differs from the classical growth techniques because of the granulate feedstock and the continuous growth process. We performed a systematic study of impurities and structural defects in several such crystals with diameters up to 60 mm. The possible origin of various defects is discussed and attributed to feedstock (concentration of transition metals), growth setup (carbon concentration), or growth process (dislocation density), showing the potential for further optimization. A distinct correlation between crystal defects and bulk carrier lifetime is observed. A bulk carrier lifetime with values up to 600 ms on passivated surfaces of dislocation-free parts of the crystal is currently achieved.