Data science in neurodegenerative disease
Its capabilities, limitations, and perspectives
Purpose of review With the advancement of computational approaches and abundance of biomedical data, a broad range of neurodegenerative disease models have been developed. In this review, we argue that computational models can be both relevant and useful in neurodegenerative disease research and although the current established models have limitations in clinical practice, artificial intelligence has the potential to overcome deficiencies encountered by these models, which in turn can improve our understanding of disease. Recent findings In recent years, diverse computational approaches have been used to shed light on different aspects of neurodegenerative disease models. For example, linear and nonlinear mixed models, self-modeling regression, differential equation models, and event-based models have been applied to provide a better understanding of disease progression patterns and biomarker trajectories. Additionally, the Cox-regression technique, Bayesian network models, and deep-learning-based approaches have been used to predict the probability of future incidence of disease, whereas nonnegative matrix factorization, nonhierarchical cluster analysis, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, and deep-learning-based approaches have been employed to stratify patients based on their disease subtypes. Furthermore, the interpretation of neurodegenerative disease data is possible through knowledge-based models which use prior knowledge to complement data-driven analyses. These knowledge-based models can include pathway-centric approaches to establish pathways perturbed in a given condition, as well as disease-specific knowledge maps, which elucidate the mechanisms involved in a given disease. Collectively, these established models have revealed high granular details and insights into neurodegenerative disease models. Summary In conjunction with increasingly advanced computational approaches, a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disease models, which can be broadly categorized into data-driven and knowledge-driven, have been developed. We review the state of the art data and knowledge-driven models and discuss the necessary steps which are vital to bring them into clinical application.