Silicon Solar Cell-Integrated Stress and Temperature Sensors for Photovoltaic Modules
We propose silicon solar cell-integrated stress and temperature sensors as a new approach for the stress and temperature measurement in photovoltaic (PV) modules. The solar cell-integrated sensors enable a direct and continuous in situ measurement of mechanical stress and temperature of solar cells within PV modules. In this work, we present a proof of concept for stress and temperature sensors on a silicon solar cell wafer. Both sensors were tested in a conventional PV module setup. For the stress sensor, a sensitivity of (−47.41 ± 0.14)%/GPa has been reached, and for the temperature sensor, a sensitivity of (3.557 ± 0.008) × 10−3 K−1 has been reached. These sensors can already be used in research for increased measurement accuracy of the temperature and the mechanical stress in PV modules because of the implementation at the precise location of the solar cells within a laminate stack, for process evaluation, in‐situ measurements in reliability tests, and the correlation with real exposure to climates.