Optical modeling of structured silicon-based tandem solar cells and module stacks
Silicon-based tandem solar cells and modules are complex systems that require optical modeling for the optimization towards highest efficiencies. The fact that such devices typically incorporate surface structures of different optical regimes poses high requirements to the involved simulation tools. The OPTOS formalism is ideally suited to deal with such complexity. Within this work OPTOS is extended in order to calculate the layer resolved absorptance in silicon-based tandem solar cells and module stacks. After describing the relevant mathematical details, a good agreement between OPTOS absorptance simulation results and EQE measurements of the current 33.3% record efficiency III-V on silicon two-terminal tandem solar cell is found. Furthermore, a detailed loss analysis is performed for an exemplary perovskite silicon solar cell with and without module encapsulation. The comparison reveals a lower photocurrent density for the module stack due to increased reflectance and absorption in the EVA.