Investigation of the temperature dependence of lithium plating onset conditions in commercial Li-ion batteries
Fast charging is one of the main challenges in Lithium-ion battery applications. Especially at low temperatures and high C-rates, capacity loss due to lithium plating is identified as the main aging effect. Electrochemical models are able to predict the lithium plating onset conditions, as they provide information about the local potentials and lithium concentrations within the individual electrodes. Due to the narrow potential window of graphite, a precise determination of the sensitive parameters is needed for an accurate prediction of the plating onset. Experimental parameterization is needed as each cell has a specific geometry and the transport parameters are material and geometry-dependent. Literature values are scattered and often do not provide information on the electrode geometry. In this study, a non-isothermal electrochemical 3D model was experimentally parameterized and used to investigate the lithium plating onset at low temperatures. The whole set of geometrical, transport and kinetic model parameters were determined at different temperatures and states of charge and the results were validated against the individual potentials of a multi-layer pouch cell. Good predictions of lithium plating onset were obtained. The study shows that the model can be used to develop fast-charging strategies for commercial lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures.
Angeles Cabañero, Maria