The running-in of lubricated metal-metal contacts - a review on ultra-low wear systems
The running-in of lubricated metalmetal contacts leading to ultra-low wear is inseparably connected with the formation of the third body and vice versa. Adequate tribological stressing provides the system with a power density that leads to complex changes of topography, near-surface morphology and chemical composition. During the running-in these changes proceed until the system shows small friction and ultra-low wear rates and performs stable with low sensitivity to external perturbations. By means of high-resolution wear measurement as well as physical and chemical analysis the capability of a tribological system to develop the third body can be determined. Moreover, the running-in can be controlled by sample finishing, oil additivation and the sequence of initial stressing steps. This contribution summarizes 20 years of own research on ultra-low wear systems and its applications.