Biotechnological production of bio-based long-chain dicarboxylic acids with oleogenious yeasts
Long-chain a,o-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are versatile chemical intermediates of industrial importance used as building blocks for the production of polymers, lubricants, or adhesives. The majority of industrial long-chain DCAs is produced from petro-chemical resources. An alternative is their biotechnological production from renewable materials like plant oil fatty acids by microbial fermentation using oleogenious yeasts. Oleogenious yeasts are natural long-chain DCA producers, which have to be genetically engineered for high-yield DCA production. Although, some commercialized fermentation processes using engineered yeasts are reported, bio-based long-chain DCAs are still far from being a mass product. Further progress in bioprocess engineering and rational strain design is necessary to advance their further commercialization. The present article reviews the basic strategies, as well as novel approaches in the strain design of oleogenious yeasts, such as the combination of traditional metabolic engineering with system biology strategies for high-yield long-chain DCA production. Therefore a detailed overview of the involved metabolic processes for the biochemical long-chain DCA synthesis is given.