The E. coli S30 lysate proteome: A prototype for cell-free protein production
Protein production using processed cell lysates is a core technology in synthetic biology and these systems are excellent to produce difficult toxins or membrane proteins. However, the composition of the central lysate of cell-free systems is still a "black box". Escherichia coli lysates are most productive for cell-free expression, yielding several mgs of protein per ml of reaction. Their preparation implies proteome fractionation, resulting in strongly biased and yet unknown lysate compositions. Many metabolic pathways are expected to be truncated or completely removed. The lack of knowledge of basic cell-free lysate proteomes is a major bottleneck for directed lysate engineering approaches as well as for assay design using non-purified reaction mixtures. This study is starting to close this gap by providing a blueprint of the S30 lysate proteome derived from the commonly used E. coli strain A19. S30 lysates are frequently used for cell-free protein production and represent the basis of most commercial E. coli cell-free expression systems. A fraction of 821 proteins was identified as the core proteome in S30 lysates, representing approximately a quarter of the known E. coli proteome. Its classification into functional groups relevant for transcription/translation, folding, stability and metabolic processes will build the framework for tailored cell-free reactions. As an example, we show that SOS response induction during cultivation results in tuned S30 lysate with better folding capacity, and improved solubility and activity of synthesized proteins. The presented data and protocols can serve as a platform for the generation of customized cell-free systems and product analysis.