Nonsmooth contact dynamics for the large-scale simulation of granular material
For the large-scale simulation of granular material, the Nonsmooth Contact Dynamics Method (NSCD) is examined. First, the equations of motion of nonsmooth mechanical systems are introduced and classified as a Differential Variational Inequality (DVI) that has a structure similar to Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). Using a Galerkin projection in time, we derive nonsmooth extensions of the SHAKE and RATTLE schemes. A matrix-free Interior Point Method (IPM) is used for the complementarity problems that need to be solved in each time step. We demonstrate that in this way, the NSCD approach yields highly accurate results and is competitive compared to the Discrete Element Method (DEM).