Non-negative matrix factorization for the near real-time interpretation of absorption effects in elemental distribution images acquired by X-ray fluorescence imaging
Elemental distribution images acquired by imaging X-ray fluorescence analysis can contain high degrees of redundancy and weakly discernible correlations. In this article near real-time non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is described for the analysis of a number of data sets acquired from samples of a bi-modal alpha + beta Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy. NMF was used for the first time to reveal absorption artefacts in the elemental distribution images of the samples, where two phases of the alloy, namely alpha and beta, were in superposition. The findings and interpretation of the NMF results were confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation of the layered alloy system. Furthermore, it is shown how the simultaneous factorization of several stacks of elemental distribution images provides uniform basis vectors and consequently simplifies the interpretation of the representation.