Internationalisation of upper echelons in different institutional contexts: Top managers in Germany and the UK
In international business research, a growing number of studies are investigating the internationalisation of top managers and its consequences for firm-level outcomes. However, relatively little attention has been devoted so far to the antecedents of top manager internationalisation and to top manager internationalisation in different institutional contexts. The present study compares the internationalisation of top managers in Germany and the UK and argues that national institutional contexts influence the international profile of top managers' human capital. Based on a sample of 931 individuals, we demonstrate that top managers' nationality, international work experience and international board appointments vary significantly between Germany and the UK. Our paper has implications for international business research and upper echelons research because it contributes to a better understanding of the antecedents of top manager internationalisation in different institutional contexts.