Federated modelling and simulation for critical infrastructure protection
Modelling and simulation is an important tool for Critical Infrastructure (CI) dependency analysis, for testing methods for risk reduction, and as well for the evaluation of past failures. Moreover, interaction of such simulations with external threat models, e.g., a river flood model, or economic models enable consequence analysis and thus may assist in what-if decision-making processes. The simulation of complex scenarios involving several different CI sectors requires the usage of heterogeneous federated simulations of CIs. However, common standards for modelling and interoperability of such federated CI simulations are missing. Also, creating the required abstract models from CIs and other data, setting up the individual federate simulators and integrating all subsystems is a time-consuming and complicated task that requires substantial know-how and resources. In this chapter, we outline applications and benefit of federated modelling, simulation and analysis (MS&A) for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP). We review the state of the art in federated MS&A for CIP and categorise common approaches and interoperability concepts like central and lateral coupling of simulators. As examples for the latter two concepts, we will present in more detail an interoperability standard from the military domain, HLA, and an approach developed in the DIESIS project. Special emphasis will also be put on describing the problem of synchronising systems with different time models. Also, we will briefly assess the state of transferring MS&A for CIP research results to practical application by comparing the situations in the USA and in Europe.