Portals as a tool for public participation in urban planning
In this article it will be shown how different general types of portals can be utilized to foster public participation processes in urban and regional planning. First portals and the objectives of their use in the public sector are explained. This happens before the background of different concepts of administrative reform and a transition of government to an electronic manner. Then public participation will be described and different categories thereof are presented. This part forms the basis for the delineation of electronic participation in urban planning. Finally the already introduced general portal types will be applied to distinguish several kinds of participation portals.