Magnetic resonance-guided cardiac interventions using magnetic resonance-compatible devices
A preclinical study and first-in-man congenital interventions
Background- Percutaneous cardiac interventions are currently performed under x-ray guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to guide intravascular interventions in the past, but mainly in animals. Translation of MR-guided interventions into humans has been limited by the lack of MR-compatible and safe equipment, such as MR guide wires with mechanical characteristics similar to standard guide wires. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly developed MR-safe and compatible passive guide wire in aiding MR-guided cardiac interventions in a swine model and describe the 2 first-in-man solely MR-guided interventions. Methods and Results- In the preclinical trial, the new MR-compatible wire aided the performance of 20 interventions in 5 swine. These consisted of balloon dilation of nondiseased pulmonary and aortic valves, aortic arch, and branch pulmonary arteries. After ethics and regulatory authority approval, the 2 first-in-man MR-guided interventions were performed in a child and an adult, both with elements of valvar pulmonary stenosis. Catheter manipulations were monitored with real-time MRI sequence with interactive modification of imaging plane and slice position. Temporal resolution was 11 to 12 frames/s. Catheterization procedure times were 110 and 80 minutes, respectively. Both patients had successful relief of the valvar stenosis and no procedural complications. Conclusions- The described preclinical study and case reports are encouraging that with the availability of the new MR-compatible and safe guide wire, certain percutaneous cardiac interventions will become feasible to perform solely under MR guidance in the future. A clinical trial is underway in our institution.