Building signatures: A holistic approach to the evaluation of heating and cooling concepts
A sustainable and environmentally responsible building concept aims at a high workplace comfort, a significantly reduced heating and cooling demand, a high-efficient plant system, and the use of renewable energy sources to condition the built environment. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the heating and cooling concepts of 11 low-energy buildings in terms of energy use, efficiency and occupant thermal comfort All buildings investigated employ environmental energy sources and sinks - such as the ground, ground water, rainwater and the ambient air - in combination with thermoactive building systems. A limited primary energy use of about 100 kWh(prim)/(m(net)(2)a) as a target for the complete building service technology (HVAC and lighting) was postulated for all buildings presented. With respect to this premise, a comprehensive long-term monitoring in high time resolution was carried out for two to five years, with an accompanying commissioning of the building performance. Measurements include the useful heating and cooling energy use, auxiliary energy use for the hydraulic system, as well as end and primary energy use, occupant thermal comfort and local meteorological conditions. A new methodology is proposed for a holistic approach to the evaluation of heating and cooling concepts, which not only considers the occupants thermal comfort, but also the useful energy consumption and the efficiency of the generation, distribution and delivery of heating and cooling energy.