Computational intelligence: The legacy of Alan Turing and John von Neumann
In this chapter fundamental problems of collaborative computational intelligence are discussed. The problems are distilled from the seminal research of Alan Turing and John von Neumann. For Turing the creation of machines with human-like intelligence was only a question of programming time. In his research he identified the most relevant problems concerning evolutionary computation, learning, and structure of an artificial brain. Many problems are still unsolved, especially efficient higher learning methods which Turing called initiative. Von Neumann was more cautious. He doubted that human-like intelligent behavior could be described unambiguously in finite time and finite space. Von Neumann focused on self-reproducing automata to create more complex systems out of simpler ones. An early proposal from John Holland is analyzed. It centers on adaptability and population of programs. The early research of Newell, Shaw, and Simon is discussed. They use the logical calculus to discover proofs in logic. Only a few recent research projects have the broad perspectives and the ambitious goals of Turing and von Neumann. As examples the projects Cyc, Cog, and JANUS are discussed.