Monitoring sector specialisation of public and private funded business research and development
This article investigates whether sector-specific research and development (R&D) specialisation indices are a useful device for R&D policy analysis. We first conceptualise R&D specialisation, and then discuss the usability and limitations of a quantitative benchmarking approach by displaying specialisation indices for Austria, Germany and Norway. We show that the extent of correlation between public and private R&D funding specialisation in firms varies considerably between countries. Reasons for specific specialisation patterns are to be found in government funding decisions and strategies, such as the role of bottom-up research funding or the relevance of defence R&D. Limitations in data availability and lack of appropriate classifications require a combination of quantitative and qualitative measures in order to understand better existing R&D specialisation patterns.