Energy efficient office buildings with passive cooling - Results and experiences from a research and demonstration programme
To gain access to information on energy use in office buildings, the German Federal Ministry for Economy launched an intensive research and demonstration programme in 1995. In advance of the 2002 EU energy performance directive a limited primary energy coefficient of about 100 kW h m-2 a-1 as a goal for the complete building services technology was postulated (HVAC + lighting) for all demonstration buildings to be supported. A further condition was that active cooling be avoided. Techniques such as natural or mechanical night ventilation or heat removal by slab cooling with vertical ground pipes as well as earth-to-air heat exchangers in the ventilation system were applied. An accompanying research was established to keep track of the results and the lessons learned from about 22 demonstration buildings realized and monitored until the end of 2005. As one outcome this paper summarises the energy performance of a selection of characteristic buildings together with an overview on the summer thermal comfort situations achieved. The research program will proceed during the next five years. Detailed reports and future results may be downloaded from the internet: www.enbau-monitor.de.