Residual stresses in ceramics are of interest for two reasons. First, residual stresses are superimposed on external stresses and thus influence the service behavior of the machined parts. Second, the effect of residual stresses on strength is of particular interest in brittle materials like ceramics, as the stress concentration is not relieved by localized plastic deformation. This contribution compiles the most important sources of residual stresses in bulk ceramics and the appropriate methods to measure them. In several case studies typical examples of the development and the effect of residual stresses on the service behavior are presented with special emphasis on near-surface effects.