Lung clearance and retention of toner, TiO2, and crystalline silica, utilizing a tracer technique during chronic inhalation exposure in syrian golden hamsters
Male and female Syrian golden hamsters were exposed 6h/day, 5 days/wk for up to 18 month to a special test toner, TiO2, and crystalline silica. The mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were about 4.0 mikro m for toner, 1.1 mikro m for TiO2, and 1.4 mikro m for silica. The target test aerosol exposure concentrations during the first 5 mo were 1.5, 6, and 24 mg/m3 (called toner low, toner medium, and toner high) for the test toner, 40 mg/m3 for TiO2, and 3 mg for SiO2. They were changed to 4, 16 and 64 mg/m3 for toner and 30 mg/m3 for TiO2 after 5 mo in order to achieve the desired lung burdens.