Cell-associated tumor necrosis factor -TNF- as a killing mechanism of activated cytotoxic macrophages
Different macrophage populations were investigated for their abilities to secrete tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and to lyse TNF-susceptible tumor cells. In this way we could demonstrate that TNF-secretion, although a feature of all activated macrophage populations, is no absolute requirement for the killing of the TNF-sensitive Wehi 164 target. Macrophage cytotoxicity against this cell but not against the TNF-resistant P815 mastocytoma, was completely inhibitable by a specific anti-TNF serum also in the absence of measurable secreted TNF. Moreover the TNF-dependent lysis of tumor cells could also be performed by activated macrophages that had been fixed with paraformaldehyde before the addition of the target cells. In the indirect radioimmunoassay, TNF could be demonstrated on the surface of fixed effector cells. Our results must be interpreted in terms of membrane-associated TNF as the lytic principle for TNF-susceptible tumor cells.