Induction of erythroid differentiation by the anthracycline antitumor antibiotic pyromycin
The oligosaccharide-anthracyclines, aclacinomycin A, marcellomycin and musettamycin, are potent inducers of erythroid differentiation in hemopoietic cell lines of rodent and human origin. The present studies revealed that pyrromycin, a closely related mono-saccharide-anthracycline, induced erythroid differentiation in Friend leukemia cells and in the human leukemia cell line K 562. Pyrromycin, marcellomycin and musettamycin, which possess an identical aglycone structure containing a Cl-hydroxyl group, exhibited relatively low optimal inductive concentrations. In contrast, the optimal inductive concentration of a aclacinomycin A, which lacks the Cl-hydroxyl group, was markedly higher, i.e., the differentiation inducing capacity was lower. It should be noted, however, that the yield of differentiated cells following treatment with the monosaccharide-anthracycline pyrromycin was distinctly lower than that after treatment with the oligo-saccharide-anthracyclines, aclacinomycin A, marcellom ycin or mussettamycin. Thus, our data indicate that the efficacy of anthracyclines to induce erythroid differentiation is related to a) the presence of a Cl-hydroxyl group in the aglycone and b) the presence of an oligosaccharide side chain.