Commensal and pathogenic biofilms differently modulate peri-implant oral mucosa in an organotypic model
The impact of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria on peri-implant mucosa is not well understood, despite the high prevalence of peri-implant infections. Hence, we investigated responses of the peri-implant mucosa to Streptococcus oralis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilms using a novel in vitro peri-implant mucosa-biofilm model. Our 3D model combined three components, organotypic oral mucosa, implant material, and oral biofilm, with structural assembly close to native situation. S. oralis induced a protective stress response in the peri-implant mucosa through upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP70) genes. Attenuated inflammatory response was indicated by reduced cytokine levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2). The inflammatory balance was preserved through increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). A. actinomycetemcomitans induced downregulation of genes important for cell survival and host inflammatory response. The reduced cytokine levels of chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL8, and CCL2 also indicated a diminished inflammatory response. The induced immune balance by S. oralis may support oral health, whereas the reduced inflammatory response to A. actinomycetemcomitans may provide colonisation advantage and facilitate later tissue invasion. The comprehensive characterisation of peri-implant mucosa-biofilm interactions using our 3D model can provide new knowledge to improve strategies for prevention and therapy of peri-implant disease.