Effect of mechanical constraints in thin ceramic LTCC/PZT multilayers on the polarization behavior of the embedded PZT
The effect of direct integration of PZT into LTCC by sintering on its polarization behavior is studied. Due to the typically small thermal expansion of PZT, compressive stresses are expected after cooling, which should promote poling. However, measurements show a strongly reduced remanent polarization compared to free PZT. Analysis of thermal expansion reveals that thermal shrinkage of the PZT is larger than that of LTCC. The impact of this finding on the poling behavior is simulated for the LTCC/PZT module, confirming the experimental observations and allowing for conclusions concerning the suitability of the PZT for integration into LTCC structures.