Adjusting the Residual Stress State in Wire Drawing Products via In-Process Modification of Tool Geometries
After conventional forming processes, the residual stress distribution in wires is frequently unfavorable for subsequent processes, such as bending operations. High tensile residual stresses typically occur near the wire surface and normally limit further processability of the material. Additional heat treatment operations or shot peening are often used to influence the residual stress distribution in the material after conventional manufacturing, which is time- and energy-consuming. This paper presents an approach for influencing the residual stress distribution by modifying the forming process, especially regarding die geometry. The aim is to reduce the resulting tensile stress levels near the surface. Specific forming elements are integrated into the dies to achieve this residual stress reduction. These modifications in the forming zone have a significant influence on process properties, such as plastic strain and deformation direction, but typically do not influence product geometry. This paper describes the theoretical approach and model setup, the FE simulation, and the results of the experimental tests. The characterization of the residual stress states in the specimen was carried out through X-ray diffraction using the sin2PS method.