We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling
Conventional planar organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer from poor light extraction due to the total internal reflection at the waveguided interfaces. Therefore, the development of efficient light extraction structures is of great necessity and significance to realize practical applications in large area and cost-effective light sources. In this paper, a high-performance internal light outcoupling system for white OLEDs with spontaneously formed metal oxide nanostructures is developed. The fabrication process of the outcoupling system is simple and can be scaled to large area manufacturing. The enhancement of external quantum efficiency in white OLEDs comprising the outcoupling system reaches a factor of 1.7, and it is further increased to 2.9 when a hemispherical lens is employed. Together with the improvement of light extraction, excellent color stability over broad viewing angles is achieved.