V2X Attack Vectors and Risk Analysis for Automated Cooperative Driving
Cooperative systems have finally entered the automotive mass market with the introduction of the 2020 VW Golf. These "Day-1" functions are aimed at driver information and warning only, but the integration of cooperative systems and automated driver assistance is already planned on several levels such as cooperative perception and cooperative driving maneuvers. The introduction of wireless open networks into highly critical systems sets highest demands to safety and security. In this paper we examine several cybersecurity attack vectors on Day-1 and future cooperative systems by applying the methodology used in functional safety. We evaluate attack difficulty (exposure), severity and controllability for a selection of current and next-gen functions. From this analysis, we derive associated risks and thus give recommendations to researchers and engineers. Finally, we simulate a selection of attacks on a platoon and evaluate function behavior and the possibility of critical system malfunction.