Rock classification based on resistivity patterns in electrical borehole wall images
Electrical borehole wall images represent grey-level-coded micro-resistivity measurements at the borehole wall. Different scientific methods have been implemented to transform image data into quantitative log curves. We introduce a pattern recognition technique applying texture analysis, which uses second-order statistics based on studying the occurrence of pixel pairs. We calculate so-called Haralick texture features such as contrast, energy, entropy and homogeneity. The supervised classification method is used for assigning characteristic texture features to different rock classes and assessing the discriminative power of these image features. We use classifiers obtained from training intervals to characterize the entire image data set recovered in ODP hole 1203A. This yields a synthetic lithology profile based on computed texture data. We show that Haralick features accurately classify 89.9% of the training intervals. We obtained misclassification for vesicular basaltic rocks. Hence, further image analysis tools are used to improve the classification reliability. We decompose the 2D image signal by the application of wavelet transformation in order to enhance image objects horizontally, diagonally and vertically. The resulting filtered images are used for further texture analysis. This combined classification based on Haralick features and wavelet transformation improved our classification up to a level of 98%. The application of wavelet transformation increases the consistency between standard logging profiles and texture-derived lithology. Texture analysis of borehole wall images offers the potential to facilitate objective analysis of multiple boreholes with the same lithology.